Vitamins and minerals are very important for children’s health. The cause of lack of vitamins and minerals is due to poor quality of the child’s meals. For example by eating moldy rice or left for a long time, vegetables and fruits to wither or being refrigerated for too long, or improper food processing like boiled over and over again …
Another cause is due to malnutrition, prolonged diarrhea, absorption disorders, liver and biliary diseases …
The harmful effects of vitamin deficiency
Vitamin A deficiency can cause eye disease causing dry eyes, mild night blindness. If severe causes ulcers, corneal perforation can lead to blindness. Vitamin A deficiency also makes children more susceptible to infections such as respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.
Lack of vitamin B1 makes children swollen, inflammation of the nerves make children with symptoms of numbness and other sensory disorders. In severe cases, it can cause heart failure and sometimes lead to death …
Lack of vitamin B6 alone is common only in genetic defects. Also seen in cases of using Rimifon to treat prolonged tuberculosis without adequate vitamin B6 supplementation.
Vitamin B12 deficiency causes giant red blood cell anemia. Loss of appetite, fatigue, and weight loss. Sometimes there is leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, prolongation of bleeding time, and other neurological signs such as a feeling of crawling, decreased touch.
Lack of vitamin C causes Scorbut to bleed easily under the skin and mucous membranes and reduces the body’s resistance to diseases, especially infections.
If your baby lacks vitamin D, it will make them more susceptible to rickets.
Lack of vitamin K makes babies prone to bleeding. Especially it can cause brain and meningitis in babies very dangerous.
Lack of calcium makes children suffer from rickets and tetani-type convulsions.
Iron deficiency causes children to suffer from anemia, dizziness, dizziness, mental retardation, reduced learning ability, fatigue and poor concentration.
Zinc deficiency causes children to develop retardation, anorexia, diarrhea, skin diseases, hair loss, slow healing of wounds, impaired immune function and increased susceptibility to infections. puberty.
Lack of iodine causes very serious consequences, in severe cases makes the child dull and slow to develop.
Use vitamins and mineral salts
To prevent vitamin A deficiency, healthy children aged 6 months to 5 years need to take vitamin A every 6 months. Children under 12 months old with 1 100,000 UI capsule each time (international unit). Children 12 months and older take 1 200,000 UI capsule at a time.
Used to prevent numbness and edema:
Young children take 1 capsule of vitamin B1 0.01g daily.
Older children take 2 – 5 vitamin B1 0.01g daily.
To prevent vitamin B6 deficiency when treating children with pre-infected tuberculosis with rimifon, take vitamin B6 25mg 1-2 capsules / day.
To treat vitamin B6 deficiency due to genetic defects, take viatmin B6 25mg 4 – 10 tablets / day.
Treatment of large red blood cell anemia: intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 100 – 200µg / day. Each time use from 1-2 weeks until the cure.
Treatment of cyanide poisoning with a high dose of 100µg / kg intravenously.
Neuropathic pain treatment with high doses of 500 – 1,000µg / week.
Note: Not for patients with cancer, obstructive disease and erythrocytosis.
Treatment of scurvy and bleeding disorders caused by vitamin C deficiency, or increase resistance to infections with:
Children take vitamin C 0.1g 1-4 tablets / day.
Older children take vitamin C 0.1g 5 – 10 tablets / day.
Vitamin C should not be administered intravenously because there have been cases of anaphylactic shock leading to death except in very necessary cases.
Used to prevent or treat rickets caused by vitamin D deficiency is very common in children under 3 years old.
Prevention of rickets: give children 800 – 1000 UI a day.
Treatment: give children 10,000 – 20,000 UI per day. Time used from 6-8 weeks to total treatment can reach 800,000 – 1,200,000 UI.
Intramuscular injection of viatmin K to prevent cerebral hemorrhage treatment for newborn babies, especially premature babies with the dose:
Vitamin K 1mg intramuscularly a single dose immediately after birth for children weighing 1,500g or more and 0.5mg dose for children weighing less than 1,500g.
Treatment of other vitamin K deficiency conditions in older children with a dose of 5 – 10mg / day intramuscularly or oral. Each course of treatment used from 5-7 days.
Combined with vitamin D to treat rickets in doses:
Calcium lactate (with 13% calcium) or calcium gluconate (with 9% calcium) 0.5g orally 1-2 capsules / day.
To treat tetani-type convulsions with a dose: calcium gluconate 0.5 g intravenously slowly 1-2 ampoules / time.
The addition of zinc to other preparations such as Multi-vitamin will provide a daily amount of zinc according to physiological needs. There are also other drugs with a higher zinc content to treat acne, or some pills combined with vitamins E, A, C and zinc for antioxidant prevention.
Currently on the market there are many mixed vitamins and minerals. Although these drugs are sold without a prescription from a physician, this does not mean that these drugs are absolutely safe. If the child does not have the disease or does not have the causes of vitamin or mineral deficiency mentioned above, these drugs should not be given to children. In cases where children need to take long-term medication, or need to take high doses, or use preparations with too much viatmin and minerals in one pill, consult a pediatrician specialist.